For its part, India is committed to increasing transparency, separating its civilian and military nuclear facilities and placing civilian facilities as part of IAEA protection measures. [14] In addition, India has pledged to continue its unilateral moratorium on nuclear testing and to strengthen measures to limit the transfer of nuclear technologies to States and non-decing actors. The agreement also allowed India to continue to update and strengthen its national export control rules. 2. India would place these civilian nuclear facilities under the security provisions of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). As a result, India`s nuclear isolation has limited the expansion of its civilian nuclear program, while leaving India relatively immune to foreign reactions to a prospective nuclear test. This is partly because of this, but mainly because of the continued uncontrolled nuclear proliferation and missile activities between Pakistan, China[41] and North Korea,[42] India conducted five additional nuclear tests in Pokhran in May 1998. Concerns about nuclear security have also sparked protests on the home front. These protests were the result of several concerns, such as the release of water to plants, environmental degradation, land acquisition and rehabilitation issues. For example, in 1990, shortly after the announcement of the Kudankulam project in Tamil Nadu state, residents protested against the discharge of water for the reactors of the Pechiparai dam in Kanyakumari district.

[60] In a post-Fukushima world, there have been a number of concerns about the safety of the Kudankulam facility, which has led to further protests. Nearly a few thousand protesters were arrested and charged with sedition. [61] This is the first initiative under the India-Russia agreement, in which the two countries decided to carry out a nuclear energy project in a third country. This project also marked considerable progress on accountability issues, which had previously increased, as in the agreement between India and the United States. Rosatom developed this turnkey project[55] to make the contractor responsible for the installation`s problems. In order to support the importance of safe use of nuclear energy, this project was developed to “post Fukushima safety standards”. [3] September 18, 2008: The Senate Foreign Relations Committee launches a crucial hearing on the Indo-American nuclear agreement. India`s fissile material stockpiles are estimated at 4.4±1.6 tonnes of highly enriched uranium (HEU) and 0.6.6±.0.15 tonnes of military plutonium. [10] India has increased its enrichment capacity at India`s rare metals plant near Mysore in Karnataka to power its growing local nuclear power generation, and continues to operate its dhruva plutonium reactor. [11] This expansion of fissile material stocks has sparked speculation about India`s interest in developing thermonuclear weapons. [12] He said: “I mention the civil nuclear initiative because India has suffered from nuclear apartheid for 34 years.

We have not been able to trade with nuclear materials, nuclear reactors and nuclear raw materials. And if this restrictive regime ends, I think President Bush will give a lot of credit. And I am very grateful for that, Mr. President. On 5 December 2008, the two countries signed an agreement to build four additional units in Kudankulam and develop new sites. [38] Russia welcomed India`s decision to establish a Global Centre for Nuclear Energy Partnership established in 2010[39] and agreed to discuss future cooperation with the centre. In collaboration with Kudankulam, India has agreed to identify a second site to accelerate the possibility of increased cooperation with Russia and has also sought to cooperate with at least 12 units over the next 20 years. [40] India and Russia have agreed to consider cooperating with third countries in the area of the peaceful use of nuclear energy. In November 2016, Japan